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Concrete plasticizerrefers to an admixture that can reduce the amount of water used for mixing and increase the strength of concrete under the condition that the workability of the concrete is constant, and the amount of cement is endless.
The effect of concrete plasticizer on fresh concrete is mainly manifested in the following aspects:
The mechanism of plasticizer impact is primarily due to the adsorption of softener by cement particles and the dispersion of cement particles by water-reducing agents. After the water reducing agent is added to the concrete, it will be separated into macromolecular anions and metal cations (such as Na +, Ca 2+). Macromolecular anions exhibiting vigorous surface activity are adsorbed on the surface of cement particles, causing the cement particles to be negatively charged, and the cement particles are dispersed due to the same charge repulsion. At the same time, because the plasticizer is hydrophilic and the adsorption layer is a solvated film around the cement particles, it can also hinder cement cohesion (space protection effect), so the cement particles and secondary coacervated particles are dispersed and released. The water and air contained in the flocculent aggregates can reduce water.
2. Plasticizing effect
After mixing water-reducing admixtures in concrete, the fluidity can be significantly increased without changing the water-cement ratio, which is called plasticizing of concrete. In addition to the effects of adsorption and dispersion, the plasticizing fact also has the effects of wetting and lubricating impact. Due to these several functions of the water reducing agent, as long as a small amount of water is used, the concrete can be easily mixed uniformly, and the workability of the freshly brewed concrete is significantly improved.
3. Regulating effect
The charged ions dissociated in the cement-water system can be adsorbed on the surface of the cement particles to increase the zeta potential, so the stabilization time of the system is longer. At the same time, such an anion adsorbing membrane and the water film produced by the hydrogen bonding association will also hinder the contact between cement particles and water, slow down the hydration effect, and thus can retard the setting.
• Mechanism of water reducing agent
water-reducing admixture is a typical surfactant. For any water reducing agent, its molecular structure includes two parts: a polar group and a non-polar group. The extreme group is adsorbed on the surface of the cement particles, which mainly determines the affinity of the water, reducing agent molecules to the mineral components of the cement particles. It appears to affect the chemical and physical properties of the entire water reducer molecule or ion. When the water reducing agent molecules (or atoms) are directionally adsorbed on the surface of the cement mineral component, the non-polar groups face outwards to form a hydrophobic film layer, so the hydrophobicity is affected. At the same time, non-polar groups also affect the affinity of cement particles and the adsorption capacity of polar groups.
The production process of foam concrete is actually not complicated, and the production equipment is simple. It can be cast on-site or mechanized in the factory. However, its performance is greatly affected by the foaming agent. Different foaming agents have different foaming properties, and the mechanical properties of foamed concrete prepared with different foaming agents vary greatly. How to prepare high-quality foam concrete, we must further compare the performance of the current mainstream blowing agent, determine the preparation of high-quality foam concrete foaming agent.
Definition of foaming agent for foam concrete
Foam concrete foaming agent belongs to a category of narrowly defined foaming agents, not all narrowly defined foaming agents. In the narrow sense of foaming agent, only a small part of it can be used for foam concrete. This is determined by the characteristics and technical requirements of foam concrete.
In industrial production and daily civilian use, the use of the blowing agent varies greatly, and different application fields have different technical requirements for the blowing agent. For example, the foaming agent for fire extinguishers particularly requires its instantaneous foaming capacity and oxygen barrier capacity but does not require its high stability and fineness. Another example is a flotation foaming agent for mining, which only requires it to have a strong adsorption force to the target substance and a good foaming force, but does not require high foaming multiples and foam stabilization. Blowing agents are currently used in almost all industrial fields and have a wide range of uses. The specific performance requirements for foaming agents in various industries are obviously different. The foaming agents that can be used in one industry may not be used or have poor effects in another industry. In the same way, the foam concrete foaming agent puts forward technical requirements for concrete foaming. In addition to its ability to generate foam, it pays special attention to the stability and fineness of foam and the adaptability of cement and other cementing materials. There are also few narrow-ranging blowing agents that can meet these requirements, and most blowing agents cannot be used in the actual production of foamed concrete. Therefore, the foam concrete foaming agent must be a few surfactants or surface-active substances that meet the above technical requirements.
Due to sufficient raw materials, the plant-type foaming agent in China has been produced and applied to a certain scale. Its main varieties are tea saponin and saponin. They are all nonionic surfactants.
①Tea saponin foaming agent, saponin, is a saponin extracted from the fruit of the Camellia plant. It is a natural nonionic surfactant with excellent properties.
② Saponin-type foaming agent Saponin-type foaming agent not only has better foaming power, but it is similar to tea saponin and has excellent foaming performance, and the foam reduction is uniform.
The foaming ability and stability of saponin are little affected by external conditions, and the requirements for the use conditions are not strict. First of all, its foaming power is hardly affected by water hardness, it can be used in a wide range of conditions of water hardness, but many synthetic anionic surfactants are easily restricted by water hardness, water hardness is slightly higher, Foaming power and foam stabilizing performance will be reduced. Secondly, saponin is not affected by pH.
Compared with the plant-type foaming agent, the performance of an animal-type foaming agent is roughly equivalent to that of plants, and the foam stability is stronger.
However, because its raw material resources are not as wide as plant type, the total production scale and application volume are not as good as plant type foaming agent.
The main disadvantage of animal-type blowing agents is higher cost, which is the fundamental reason why animal-type blowing agents are not as popular as synthetic ones.
Because the animal-type foaming agent is particularly stable, it is particularly suitable for the production of ultra-low density foam concrete, especially ultra-lightweight foam concrete and products with a density of 200 to 500 kg / m3. In general, foam concrete with a density above 600 is easier to produce, while density below 500 is difficult to produce, and density below 300 is more difficult to produce, and using an animal-type foaming agent is relatively easy to achieve Ultra-low density. Because even when the amount of cement is very small, and the amount of foam is extremely high, it is not easy to deform and collapse the mold, and the pouring stability is still very good. Its characteristics determine that it has a very broad application prospect despite its high cost.
In summary, although the above-mentioned foaming agents are widely used, they all have the disadvantages that the performance is not comprehensive enough to meet the actual foam concrete production needs. There is no one that can fully meet the foam performance technical requirements. This is reflected in the low foaming power and foam stability of rosin. Although the anionic surfactant has good foaming power and poor foam stability, the animal and vegetable protein foaming agent has good stability, but the foaming ability is average. This is an important reason why the overall level of blowing agents in China is low, and the quality is not high.
The only way to solve the poor performance of the above single-component foaming agent is to develop to the fourth generation of high-performance composite foaming agents and take the path of compound modification to produce a composite foaming agent.
China’s bearing enterprise has the most effective 40 years from scratch, and it commenced a whole lot later than superior western countries. With the improvement of the domestic bearing production era, its types and specifications have gradually been brought into line with international requirements, and the manufacturing line is fantastically comprehensive. However, due to the past due begin, China’s bearing industry lags significantly at the back of the advanced worldwide stage. Even though the export volume is large, it’s miles particularly low-end products, and excessive-give up bearings are imported in large portions. Angular touch Ball Bearings is considered one of the numerous classes of bearings, of which four-point contact ball bearings and Single row angular contact ball bearings occupy 10% of the proportion.
4 point contact ball bearings
In keeping with customs information, the range of imports and exports of Angular Contact Ball Bearings can be visible that the export of bearings is better than the import. On equal time, both imports and exports have improved, and exports have passed RMB 34 billion. The increase in China’s bearing imports and exports additionally shows the stable demand and development of the bearing industry. Most of the exports made in China belong to low-end merchandise, and excessive-quit products are surprisingly dependent on imports. Watching the connection between China’s bearing sales and imports, it may be found that there is a clear positive correlation between the two, indicating that China’s bearing marketplace has a good-sized dependence on imports.KT909825 IKO roller bearing
Since the Eighties, the world’s large bearing companies have begun to put money into China to make bigger their sales. Home agencies have additionally obtained orders for primary products from principal bearing groups, and there is dependence on the overseas enterprise.
More than 70% of the world bearing marketplace percentage is shared by the top ten multinational bearing group agencies. Among them, the united states, which bills for 23% of the global market, 21% of the EU Union, and 19% of Japan, is ruled by way of 5 businesses together with Japan’s NSK, Sweden’s SKF, Germany’s FAG, and other businesses, together with Timken. At the same time, the high-cease market of the sector bearing industry is monopolized through the organizations cited above, even as the low-end market is focused in China. Four Point contact ball bearings and Single row angular contact ball bearings occupy a large share.
At some point in the “thirteenth five-year Plan” duration, China’s policy orientation will retain to guide capital investment in vital areas of the Angular Contact Ball Bearings industry. Bearing improvement fashion may be riding the bearing enterprise to high-precision, excessive-tech content and excessive value-delivered products, and accelerating the upgrading of the bearing enterprise. Inspired by using the improvement of various fields consisting of rail transit, medical gadget, new power, aerospace, and automobile lightweight, the extent of China’s high-end bearing casting enterprise could be substantially progressed. As the focal point of global production shifts to China, the development of China’s high-stop bearing industry has a strong impetus, and the necessities for domestic high-cease bearing producers have emerged as higher and higher. At gift, the foundry enterprise of China’s Angular contact Ball Bearings has to attention to enhancing product grades and reducing production costs to obtain a strategic transition from “massive” to “robust.”
Cumulative diagnoses and deaths: Up to now, 576 cases of new coronary pneumonia and 22 deaths have been reported nationwide. Among the confirmed cases, 80 and 3 cases were respectively diagnosed from the “Diamond Princess” in Japan, and the evacuees in Wuhan, China, and 493 occurrences in the United States were distributed in 12 states in the United States. These 493 cases include “presumed positive” cases that are still awaiting final confirmation by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and confirmed cases that have received results from the CDC.
Impact on the economy/stock market
On March 3rd local time, the Federal Reserve announced that it would cut the standard range of the federal funds rate by 50 basis points, which is the most significant rate cut by the Federal Reserve since 2008 to counter the economic impact of the new crown epidemic. As a result of this boost, U.S. stocks turned to rise for a short time, but the three major US stock indexes fell across the board at the close. The yield on 10-year U.S. Treasury bonds fell below 1%, a record low, and the lowest fell to 0.906%. The yield on the 30-year Treasury note also hit a record low of 1.601%.
Last week U.S. stocks experienced their worst weekly performance since the financial crisis. In terms of U.S. economic data, after the market opened on the 2nd, the United States released manufacturing data that was less than expected. The ISM’s manufacturing purchasing managers index fell from 50.9 in January to 50.1 in February.
With the spread of the epidemic in the United States, market concerns about U.S. business performance and economic growth prospects have intensified. Goldman Sachs chief US stock strategy analyst David Costing recently pointed out in a report that considering the possibility of widespread virus spread, U.S. companies’ earnings growth in 2020 is expected to be zero. Wall Street’s highly sought after economist Ed Hyman said the new crown pneumonia epidemic could eventually lead to a recession in the U.S. economy. He significantly reduced the US GDP growth estimate for the second and third quarters of this year to zero. Moody’s chief economist Mark Zandi believes that in the first half of 2020, the U.S. economy has a 40% chance of falling into recession.
1. U.S. President Trump announced on the 2nd that he is considering imposing more travel restrictions on severely affected countries, but did not disclose which countries are included. Vice President Mike Pence said at a press conference that people flying to the United States from Italy and South Korea by plane will be screened multiple times before arriving in the United States.
2. The United States will also significantly increase the production of new coronary pneumonia test kits and masks. The U.S. Secretary of Health said that there are currently about 75,000 test kits in the United States, and that number will increase “significantly” in the coming weeks.
People’s living conditions
With the spread of the new crown pneumonia epidemic in the United States, many people have begun to store some medicines, cleaning supplies, hand soap, masks, surgical gloves, and food that can be saved, and many shelves are empty. Experts warn that retailers may experience more considerable shortages in the coming weeks, which could trigger price hikes. Also, at least 48 schools in Washington State have been closed due to concerns about the spread of the new crown pneumonia epidemic.
The world’s superpower, the United States, cannot escape the effects of a new coronavirus. The impact of the epidemic is non-international, and the mode of transmission from person to person is also consistent. The new coronavirus has changed the way people communicate and travel, which has severely impacted the development of the market economy. Especially the real estate construction industry. This also directly affected the development of the lightweight foam concrete industry.
Lightweight foam concrete is widely used, including foam concrete blocks, thin partition boards, cellular lightweight concrete blocks(CLC), roof insulation, and ground backfill. Most of these products are used as modularity in building housing, which can be quickly spliced or shaped to achieve standardized construction. Therefore, future market demand is still huge. Lightweight foamed concrete blocks are currently used in isolation wards in large medical isolation areas in the United States. The manufacturing method of lightweight concrete blocks is simply cement, fly ash, mineral powder, fiber, foaming agent, polycarboxylate superplasticizer, foam stabilizer, reinforcing agent, and so on: convenient construction, large-scale production and processing, batch production management, and final shipment to the construction site.
No matter how the world economy develops, we must return to the people-oriented principle. It is all about eating, wearing, living, and walking. The housing construction problems in various countries have played an essential role in driving economic development. Therefore, after the epidemic, the state will focus on infrastructure and the housing industry. There are breakthroughs in this industry, and new bright spots are bound to unearth a large bucket of real gold.
what’s needle curler bearing?
The needle roller bearing is a roller bearing with a cylindrical curler. Relative to its diameter, the curler is skinny and lengthy. This curler is known as a needle curler. Despite its small move-phase, the needle curler bearing nonetheless has an excessive load-bearing potential. The needle curler bearing is geared up with thin and long rollers. Therefore, the radial structure is compact. Whilst the internal diameter length and load capability are the same as those of types of bearings, the outer diameter is the smallest, which is especially appropriate for the bearing effects with limited radial set upsize. So, when deciding on a needle curler bearing, you need to understand the performance in detail.
1. carrying capacity
Typically, below the equal outside dimensions, the bearing ability of the needle curler bearing is 1.five-three instances that of ball bearing, so while a big load or effect load is carried out, roller bearing can be selected preferentially.
But, when the diameter is less than or the same to 20mm, the bearing capability of the 2 is similar, and the price of ball bearings is decreasing than roller bearings, so ball bearings are favored.
2. the rate can not exceed the restrict pace
An immoderate rotation velocity of the rolling bearing will increase the temperature between the friction surfaces, ensuing in excessive warmness. In this case, the lubrication of the two metal surfaces fails, and the rolling elements could be broken by using glue.
While designing, if the rotational velocity of the rotating shaft is known, when deciding on a rolling bearing, we need to make the proscribing speed more exquisite than the rotational pace of the shaft, in order that the rolling bearing is safe.
3.The allowable variety of angular deviation
Because of the setup error of the bearing or the deformation of the shaft, the centerline of internal and outer earrings may be surprisingly willing. The angle of inclination is referred to as angular deviation. If the angular difference is just too considerable, it could even affect the regular operation of the shaft. Right now, you can select around bearing, consisting of a spherical ball bearing or a spherical curler bearing. The self-aligning bearing outer ring raceway is a spherical floor centered on the bearing middle, so it may robotically align itself. Thrust ball bearings and needle curler bearings do not allow angular deviations. Thrust ball bearings can handiest guide axial loads, and the load line of motion ought to coincide with the axis. If there may be an angular deviation, the thrust ball bearing can be seriously damaged. The rolling body of the needle roller bearing is in line contact with the outer ring and is maximum touchy to the axis deviation. It needs to be prevented when the axis is skewed.
4. Angular touch radial bearings must exist in pairs and cannot stay alone.
Right here, angular touch radial bearings usually discuss with tapered needle curler bearings and angular contact ball bearings. When the shaft is in touch with the taking, when the angular contact radial bearing is subjected to radial load, due to the existence of the touch perspective, the additional axial pressure can be generated, so it is commonly utilized in pairs. There are two approaches to install: front and reverse. The front aspect is opposite the narrow facets of the outer ring, and the opposite side is contrary to the entire facets of the outer ring.
The rolling bearing lubricant may be grease, lubricating oil, or stable lubricant. In standard, rolling bearings are lubricated with grease. Grease lubrication isn’t always natural to lose, so it is straightforward to seal and hold, and it may run for a long time with an unmarried filling of grease. The gain of oil lubrication is that it has much less friction resistance than grease lubrication and might deplete warmth. It’s miles especially used for bearings with high velocity or high operating temperatures.
If you lived in Sioux falls, south Dakota, for a while, someone might ask you this question: “do you know David Jarre?”The problem is: do you know the story of David?
David Jarre had a tough life and one of the most traumatized men of all time. He is a court services officer with the South Dakota joint justice system and a first-generation south Sudanese American. When he was a boy, he nearly lost his life twice. The first was a severe gunshot wound, the second a grenade in the chest. He miraculously survived crossing the desert without food or enough water. He lost his family and friends because of the war. Undefeated by his ordeal, David went on to study war and conflict as a graduate student at the University of North Dakota. David and Brenda and Donn Hill set up eight makeshift schools in the village of Khor Wakow, serving more than 6.000 children.
There is a saying because a man knows a city. It was after learning about David’s story that I looked up the materials of Sodiri, hoping to learn more about Sodiri.
Sodiri has a single economic structure, mainly agriculture and animal husbandry, backward industry, weak foundation, and strong dependence on nature and foreign aid. Sudan is one of the world’s least developed countries declared by the United Nations. It has been rated as “the most unstable country in the world” by the failed states index. Such a current situation makes Sodiri’s bearing industry has been in a very backward state, which is also quite reasonable.
Wuxi spark company is a company focusing on carrying research. The following will also be a more accurate study of the development of the Sodiri bearing industry. Wuxi sparks bearing co., ltd. As a definite competitive advantage. Compared with listed companies in the bearing industry, the company’s operating income and net profit in the middle level.
Wuxi sparks bearing co., ltd. Attaches great importance to the improvement of management level, to reduce the cost of management, enhance the competitiveness of the enterprise. Attach great importance to the development of the market and adjust the product structure according to market development. Attach great importance to scientific research. While studying the technical improvement of old products, we should not only develop new products in real-time according to the market but also develop and reserve some future new products in advance according to market development.
With the rapid growth of China’s financial level, the non-stop improvement of industrialization degree, and the accelerating urbanization process, it is estimated that by way of 2020. China’s high electricity-eating building area will attain 70 billion m2. and the once a year constructing power intake will attain 410 million tons. Fashionable coal and 1.2 trillion kWh. The use of power-saving and environmentally-pleasant new constructing substances to bolster the thermal insulation overall performance of building envelopes is a critical manner of manufacturing power conservation.foam concrete
Phase alternate electricity storage technology is a technique of electricity storage by using alternate phase materials (PCM cloth) to absorb or launch a large quantity of latent heat of segment change at some point of section change. The ambient temperature remains incredibly solid during power garage, which is good.
Section alternate strength garage concrete combining alternate section era and foam concrete is a brand new sort of foam concretemanufactured from concrete cloth and incorporating alternate phase cloth in the practical instruction process. As the wall and roofing material in the building envelope structure, it is able to hold the indoor temperature balance better, enhance the indoor thermal comfort, and decrease the energy ate up by way of the use of temperature manipulate device inclusive of air conditioners and heating within the room: strength saving and environmental safety.
A gift, most of the programs inside the concrete foam field are solid-liquid phase change substances. for the duration of the segment exchange system, the strong-liquid section exchange cloth can be transformed from a stable-state to a liquid country, and it’s going to waft without delay in the constructing. To keep a stable state, it’s going to no longer flow to the outside for the duration of use. Commonly, some vendors are used to absorb and accommodate the PCM fabric, and a section change electricity storage building fabric having a strong shape and having warmness garage and discharge capability is ready. There are numerous methods to combine PCM metallic and foam concrete
(1) Impregnation approach
The impregnation technique is to at once soak the froth concrete inside the liquid segment trade material and adsorb the section exchange material inside the pore by way of the capillary adsorption pressure of the froth concrete pore. This technique has low cost, convenient operation, low requirements on the experimental surroundings, and is suitable for on-website supervision.
(2) Direct addition approach
Direct addition means that the segment trade fabric is immediately added to the uncooked fabric of froth concrete as a component of the construction fabric inside the practice degree of froth concrete. The technique is simple in operation, low in cost, and the phase change fabric can be uniformly dispersed in the building fabric. The quantity of the section alternate cloth may be controlled.
(3) Porous cloth adsorption technique
The porous cloth adsorption technique is much like the principle of the impregnation approach. It refers to a porous material having an excessive porosity and a massive particular surface area as a service, and a PCM segment trade cloth is sucked into the micropores of the porous material to shape a composite section change material. The finished content can be delivered to thefoam concrete as a mixture to create a segment exchange strength garage building fabric with heat garage and launch capability. Generally used porous substances are accelerated perlite, diatomaceous earth, ceramic sand, activated carbon, and increased graphene. The porous fabric plays an assisting function within the phase of trade material in the segment exchange procedure. It could correctly lessen the leakage of the phase change fabric right into a liquid country so that the composite segment alternate material can keep the strong form and the whole segment alternate system. It is performance.
(4) Microcapsule method
The microcapsule approach is to coat the segment exchange materials with a solid polymer movie and seal it in a microcapsule shaped by a polymer film to build a solid particle having a middle-shell shape. The microcapsule approach no longer only solves the extent change and liquid phase leakage of the solid-liquid segment trade fabric products during the phase trade technique however also improves the heat switch performance of the section change material merchandise, particularly casting off the section trade materials in the segment exchange. The phenomenon of supercooling and section separation inside the method also avoids the direct touch of segment change materials with the external environment, reduces the volatilization toxicity of some phase trade substances, improves the durability of segment change electricity garage building materials, and prolongs the development.
The huge Loss That Attrition, wear Brings, The Lubricant Is the handiest Shortcut That Friction is widespread. Facts display that friction consumes one-1/3 of the sector’s primary electricity, and eighty percentage of gadget components fail because of wear and tear. According to records, the once a year loss caused by friction and wear inside the united states, Britain, Germany, and other commercial advanced international locations account for about 2% to 7% of their gross countrywide product (GDP). According to the GDP of us, the yearly loss due to friction and put on is anticipated to be up to one hundred fifty billion our greenbacks. Lowering friction reduces power consumption, which not only reduces the effect on oil assets; however, it also method reducing CO2 emissions, which reduces the pressure on the environment and public fitness.
The take a look at friction, wear, and lubrication involves many fields, which includes materials, chemistry, mechanics, physics, and mechanics. These studies are of tremendous importance for enhancing the reliability of the mechanical system, improving paintings efficiency and product excellence, and developing high technology and lubrication protection substances and technology used within the field of national protection. Tribology in the national financial system and social improvement of the strategic role and crucial role, not handiest contemplated in power saving, intake discount, and emission discount, resolve the problem of tribology, but also can notably enhance the reliability of mechanical systems within the field of aerospace, lessen and prevent the incidence of foremost catastrophic injuries. Tribology is a vital pressure for u. s. a . to store sources and energy, defend the ecological environment, and recognize the coordinated development of business society, herbal ecology, and environmental assets.
Put on is due to mechanical movement, now and again observed by using chemical response (refers to Corrosion put on) and electrical pastime (Edm wear), the material floor within the relative movement of the constant loss of the phenomenon, is followed by way of friction and the inevitable end result, there is friction is wear. To reduce the consumption of materials and energy and enlarge the carrier lifestyles of components, it’s miles necessary to reduce friction and wear. Many antifriction and wear-resistant coatings were effectively organized by using electroplating, electroless plating, and composite plating.
The essential cause of damage is the result of mechanical, physical, and chemical interaction between the item subjected to tribological load and the applicable factors inside the friction pair system. What kind of communication occurs relies upon on the nature of all of the aspects worried within the wear process, together with the kind of motion, the motion procedure, the common load, the speed, the temperature, the surface traits, and the length of the quantity.
there are numerous type methods of wear, particularly including the following three category techniques, particularly, in keeping with the environment and medium of wear and tear; according to the wear surface contact belongings and put on mechanism type; class by using put on the mechanism is defined below:
1) Fatigue put on
A few system elements which include cams, gears, and rolling bearings, in rolling or rolling and sliding beneath the movement of a joint purpose of surface fatigue, a peeling phenomenon known as fatigue put on.
2) Abrasive put on
While the floor of the fabric is in touch with a difficult or bump, the event that causes the floor of the cloth to suffer loss is called abrasive wear.
3) Corrosion and wear
The damage and tear that paintings together are known as corrosion wear.
4) Erosion and wear
Wear as a result of strong debris or fluids, putting the floor of fabric at a sure velocity, and attitude is known as erosion wear.
5) Fretting wear
The wear among touch surfaces as a result of a small amplitude of relative vibration is referred to as fretting wear.
To remedy the hassle of friction, the primary choice at present is to feature lubricating oil to lessen the friction coefficient and reduce the friction.